Facebook Pages for Social Media Marketing

Panopticon Website: http://www.eyesonpanopticon.wixsite.com/home
Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/eyesonpanopticon
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/eyesonpanopticon

Social Media Strategy: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1MJvi3um6ZVFwNy9qphOGNEx0OCPoiiRN

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/chadob

A week after Panopticon’s launch we had had 36 unique views of our digital story according to Verse’s statistics. This is a low number of views but it correlates with our social media numbers with 36 followers on Instagram and 56 on Facebook. Although this campaign didn’t generate much interest the Facebook Pages offer features that are uniquely relevant to multimedia projects, which we used for promoting and directing audiences to our digital story.

Facebook Page Over Instagram

Two small features that significantly improve the clarity of our offering is the ability to place a video as our cover image to show a teaser trailer and being able to choose “Watch Video” as our call to action button. This helped us to reinforce exactly how we wanted users to engage (Ayres n.d.). 

However, one of the biggest advantages the Facebook Page has over Instagram is the ability to personally invite friends and family to like our page. We can also link the Page to our personal profiles in the Team Members box, while our Instagram account is disconnected from our personal accounts. Being able to ask and contact people directly proved helpful for increasing our total Page likes. This is particularly useful given the News Feed penalties from Facebook if you ask for engagement in posts  (Silverman 2017).

Paid vs Organic Reach

The Facebook Page Insights from paid and organic posts on our Page align with industry expectations after Facebook announced that they wanted users to see more posts from friends and family and less content being shared by businesses. However, this hasn’t reduced the amount of News Feed space for sponsored posts just limited the unpaid reach of business posts. Our sponsored posts were inexpensive, $15 spent across two posts, and almost 2000 people saw our ads, compared to less than 50 for non-promoted posts.

Our first promoted post for $5 reached 524 people while our second post for $10 reached 1390 people. Part of the increased success came via increasing the budget but also using data from our Instagram account, which achieved better organic reach through hashtags. By promoting our post with the most Impressions we were able to take ‘content that is already performing well and [amplify] it’ (Peters 2018).

The Next Test

For our next promotion I would like to experiment with the campaign objective and rather than boosting a post choose to get more video watches. This would place the call to action button “Watch More” on the promoted post as opposed to “Learn More”. Hopefully this reduces the number of steps the user would need to take to get to Panopticon and minimise the interaction cost (Budiu 2013).

This would also test if we could get better value from changing the Facebook marketing objective. Gotter (2018) identified that in 2017, ‘link clicks was the cheapest objective to choose’ while aiming for impressions and reach was the most expensive, but this came with a warning ‘not all link clicks guarantee conversions, […] you may be paying for some results here that you aren’t getting, while reach and impressions give you exactly what you’re paying for.’ We can test the effectiveness of this as Verse requires a viewer to watch for a minimum of 30 seconds before registering a unique view and if link clicks are high but views are low we will know if the link clicks are legitimate and reaching an interested audience.


Ayres, S n.d., ‘Here’s the Science Behind Asking Fans to LIKE Your Facebook Posts’, Post Planner, blog post, viewed 28 May 2018, <https://www.postplanner.com/call-to-action-science-behind-asking-fans-to-like-share-facebook-posts/>.

Budiu, R 2013, ‘Interaction Cost’, Nielsen Norman Group, article, 31 August, viewed 28 May 2018, <https://www.nngroup.com/articles/interaction-cost-definition/>.

Gotter, A 2018, ‘The Complete Resource to Understanding Facebook Ads Cost – 2017 Benchmarks!’, AdEspresso by Hootsuite, blog post, 22 May, viewed 30 May 2018, <https://adespresso.com/blog/facebook-ads-cost/>.

Peters, B 2018, ‘The Simple Facebook Posting Strategy That Helped us 3x Our Reach and Engagement’, Buffer Social, blog post, 21 March, viewed 28 May 2018, <https://blog.bufferapp.com/facebook-posting-strategy#>.

Silverman, H 2017, ‘Fighting Engagement Bait on Facebook’, Facebook Newsroom, blog post, 18 December, viewed 28 May 2018, <https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2017/12/news-feed-fyi-fighting-engagement-bait-on-facebook/>.

Digital Story Peer Review

Breaking Through: Women in Comedy

A non-fiction project aiming to develop an online community for aspiring female comedians, using interviews with established and emerging artists.

The Wix site and social media channels serve as the central platforms for forming the online community and exhibiting interview materials. Within the website, there is evidence of branding aesthetics such as neon lights against a brick wall background that I believe resonate with underground New York comedy clubs. This strong and relevant aesthetic is primarily within the logo and video content but could be used much more across the site as a whole.

One of the biggest strengths of the project is the in-person work undertaken during the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, filming interviews and talking with comedians who are promoting their own shows. This serves as an excellent opportunity to build relationships and translate them into online connections and cross-promotions, helping both groups to achieve their objectives.

Once Upon A Scary Story (OOUAS Podcast)

A fiction podcast series telling scary stories for children, featuring a cast of children and driven by children.

The podcast has an online base via its Wix site and it appears that the podcast will be distributed on the site, Spotify, iTunes and Soundcloud with marketing through Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. The podcast has a strong brand identity with red as a feature colour against black and white. The dynamic logo is great, referencing both the medium and genre of the podcast.

A strong social media presence has been established on Instagram. This appears to be driven by following a number of other users but hasn’t necessarily resulted in high engagement with individual posts at this stage. I believe that the social media platforms chosen are appropriate for reaching parents who I assume are the target audience given the age of the children who the podcasts appear intended for. I believe that asking kids to submit short video reviews of the podcast would be a good way to approach future promotions.

I am interested in the ‘choose your own adventure’ and interactive component to this story. I believe it provides a unique point of difference for the podcast but I am curious about how direction to the choice the stories paths will be approached. I expect that there will be a changeable epilogue to each podcast episode directing listeners to an online form where they can submit their suggestions or preferences. As more episodes are released I expect these would be replaced with something that promotes the next episode and encourages audiences to catch up so that they too can participate in the story development.

The Future of the News Feed – Facebook Ads

2018 is proving to be a year of change for Facebook with potentially more to come in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal and Mark Zuckerberg’s Congressional hearings. These changes will be closely watched by businesses who have spent almost $12-billion on Facebook Advertising in the first quarter of 2018 (Facebook, Inc. 2018). Understanding how to reach potential customers as this landscape is updated or regulated will be crucial to running successful campaigns with Facebook Advertising. Let’s look at how Facebook has changed already this year and what should stay the same.

Less Organic Reach For Businesses

Mark Zuckerberg announced on Facebook on January 12 that ‘The first changes you’ll see will be in News Feed, where you can expect to see more from your friends, family and groups. […] you’ll see less public content like posts from businesses, brands, and media.’ (Zuckerberg 2018a). While this change will have less of an impact on sponsored posts, it does mean that the likelihood of getting organic views in the News Feed would drop, as identified by Griffen (2018).

Limiting Targeted Advertising

Partner Categories was a feature that allowed advertisers to target quite specific audiences based on information gathered by third-parties apps and Facebook Marketing Partners. This included information ‘such as offline demographic and behavioral information like homeownership or purchase history’ (Facebook Business n.d.a). As of March 2018, this feature is being discontinued by Facebook, ‘while this is common industry practice, we believe this step, winding down over the next six months, will help improve people’s privacy on Facebook’ (Facebook Newsroom 2018). The future of targeted advertising appears to be dependent on the customer information that business already have (or are willing to purchase outside of Facebook), particularly if users take advantage of the announcement in May 2018 that they can clear their browser history from Facebook’s database (Zuckerberg 2018b)

Government Regulation

The potential regulation of Facebook advertising could also impact the ability for advertisers to target specific markets. In the US it is likely that is could vary across the country with legislation happening at a state, not national level (Purdy 2018). There is even a call from Dayen (2018) to ban targeted advertising completely. In Australia, there may not be any regulation changes until after the ACCC releases its final report on Facebook and Google advertising operations that is expected mid-2019 (AFP 2018).

Finding Customers on Facebook

What will still remain is the ability to reach customers who are already connected to your business and ‘Lookalike Audiences’ (Facebook Business n.d.b) through sponsored advertising. The ability for businesses to enhance the Facebook experience could prove the difference in the getting space on the News Feed. When examining user engagement across a range of social media platforms, Voorveld et al. (2018, p. 45) found that, specifically, Facebook ‘consumers used it to fill empty moments’ looking for ‘enjoyment, satisfaction, or relaxation’. An important feature for users is ‘social interaction’ and ‘advertisers aim for or have content suitable for sharing with others or about which users would like to communicate with others’ (Voorveld et al. 2018, p. 46).


AFP 2018, Facebook rejects Australia media calls for regulation, The Economic Times, 27 April, viewed 24 April 2018, <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/facebook-rejects-australia-media-calls-for-regulation/articleshow/63879442.cms&gt;.

Dayen, D 2018, Ban Targeted Advertising, The New Republic, 10 April, viewed 27 April 2018, <https://newrepublic.com/article/147887/ban-targeted-advertising-facebook-google&gt;.

Facebook, Inc 2018, Facebook Reports First Quarter 2018 Results, CISION PR Newswire, 25 April, viewed 27 April 2018, <https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/facebook-reports-first-quarter-2018-results-300636652.html&gt;.

Facebook Business n.d.a, About Partner Categories, Facebook, Inc., viewed 27 April 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/business/help/298717656925097&gt;.

Facebook Business n.d.b, Lookalike Audiences, Facebook, Inc., viewed 27 April 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/business/learn/facebook-ads-lookalike-audiences&gt;.

Griffen, A 2018, Facebook News Feed: Why It Is Changing and What It Actually Means for Users, Independent, 12 January, viewed 27 April 2018, <https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/facebook-news-feed-latest-why-change-users-fake-news-media-mark-zuckerberg-a8156491.html&gt;.

Purdy, C 2018, If Facebook gets regulated, thank vegans, Quartz, 5 April, viewed 27 April 2018 <https://qz.com/1240903/regulating-technology-companies-like-facebook-will-depend-on-the-states/&gt;.

Voorveld, H, Noort, G, Muntinga, D, & Bronner, F 2018, ‘Engagement with Social Media and Social Media Advertising: The Differentiating Role of Platform Type’, Journal of Advertising, vol. 47(1), pp.38-54.

Zuckerberg, M 2018a, One of our big focus areas for 2018 …, Facebook, 2 May, viewed 27 April 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10104413015393571&gt;.

Zuckerberg, M 2018b, Today at our F8 conference I’m going to …, Facebook, 2 May, viewed 3 May 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10104899855107881&gt;.

YouTube Channel Partner Goals – Web Presence

YouTube is host to a billion users who are watching over one billion hours of content every day (YouTube Press 2018) with content creators uploading 300 hours of video to the platform every minute (Brandwatch 2017). I wanted to find out more about what channel owners can do in this highly competitive marketplace to keep viewers watching, subscribing and returning to their content. For some creators, their content can generate millions of dollars in ad revenue through the YouTube Partner Affiliate program. Since the start of 2018, to be a part of the program, channels need to meet ‘the eligibility requirement for monetization [of] 4,000 hours of watch time within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers’ (YouTube-Creators Blog 2018).

3-Minute Videos

According to Buffer’s blog post by Lee (2016), 3-minutes is the optimal length for a YouTube video. This was based on data that took the average length of the most popular videos on YouTube. However, this information was gathered in 2012 & 2013 and, if redone today, should probably be considered for individual categories because of the significant popularity of music videos. Even with that in mind, keeping videos succinct makes sense considering viewer behaviour. According to the statistics from Brandwatch (2017) ‘More than half of YouTube views come from mobile devices’ and ‘the average mobile viewing session lasts more than 40 minutes’. These two points make me believe that users are actively engaging with the platform and viewing a variety of videos each visit – this provides an opportunity for creators to keep viewers on their channels.

A Well-Timed Card

Using YouTube channel analytics, creators can see the average view duration and a graph of the audience retention over time for each individual video. In an interview with DeMers (2017), Syed Balkhi suggests placing a card at the exact moment when users are leaving your video. Creators can use this card to invite viewers to link to another video right at the moment they are thinking of looking for new content. This takes advantage of the active nature of the user and keeps them clocking up viewing hours on your channel.


While researching I found many people recommending the use of TubeBuddy, a browser extension certified by YouTube, to manage and optimise a YouTube channel. One of the key features of this plugin is its ability to improve SEO within YouTube. It allows channel managers to see where a video is ranking on YouTube searches for its tags and keywords. It also can suggest related tags and keywords for individual videos by analysing the title, description and existing tags. Based on the positive response this plugin has received (Boone 2018), I am definitely planning to test it out for future projects.


Boone, J 2018, ‘10 Ways to Harness the Power of Your YouTube Videos’, No Film School, 19 April, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://nofilmschool.com/2018/04/10-youtube-tips-creators-should-know-about&gt;.

DeMers, J 2017, ‘8 Secrets To Grow Your YouTube Channel In 2018 From A YouTuber With Over 550 Million Video Views’, Forbes, 29 December, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2017/12/29/8-secrets-to-grow-your-youtube-channel-in-2018-from-a-youtuber-with-over-550-million-video-views/#239e263f28de&gt;.

Lee, K 2014, ‘Infographic: The Optimal Length for Every Social Media Update and More’, Buffer Social Blog, 21 October, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://blog.bufferapp.com/optimal-length-social-media&gt;.

Mohan, N 2018, ‘Additional Changes to the YouTube Partner Program (YPP) to Better Protect Creators’, YouTube Creators Blog, 16 January, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://youtube-creators.googleblog.com/2018/01/additional-changes-to-youtube-partner.html&gt;.

Smith, K 2017, ‘39 Fascinating and Incredible YouTube Statistics’, Brandwatch Blog, 12 December, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/39-youtube-stats/&gt;.

YouTube 2018, YouTube for Press, YouTube, viewed 25 April 2018, <https://www.youtube.com/intl/en-GB/yt/about/press/&gt;.

Content is More Important than Quality – Digital Storytelling

There is so much digital content available for consumption and most people have relatively easy access to technology to create this content, however, high production values do not seem to be a prerequisite for audiences. As long as the content is of interest, and able to be downloaded or buffered, users are willing to engage with it (Dobrian et al. 2011). The online video with the second most views over the first 24-hours is known as Chewbacca Mask Lady, reaching 50 million views in a day (Parker 2016). It was originally recorded and posted to Facebook by Candace Payne while sitting in her car. While this example is definitely an outlier, I’m curious about the relationship between perception of quality and user engagement.

Audio First for Audiovisual

In support of content over quality, if the audio is of poor quality and the information cannot be heard, it creates a big barrier for audiences to engage (Beerends & De Caluwe, cited in Harrell n.d.). This definitely aligns with the findings of Dobrian et al. (2011) where audiences are willing to sacrifice video quality (to a certain extent) as long as they are interested in the content. If the audio quality isn’t perfect, videos can be helped by using subtitles, Ashraf (2016) found that ‘78.2% of all views are silent’. This is all in services of making it easier for audiences to understand the creator’s intended message.

Amateur Hour

The internet and social media have provided an open platform for users to share their digital creations and Jenkins (2006 p. 136) identifies its value for amateur storytellers:

“Most of what the amateurs create is gosh-awful bad, yet a thriving culture needs spaces where people can do bad art, get feedback, and get better. After all, much of what circulates through mass media is also bad by almost any criteria, but the expectations of professional polish make it a less hospitable environment for newcomers to learn and grow.”

For online distribution, the ability for people to reach a community with shared interests is more important than the quality of the production. The deeper value of amateur production was also recognised by Allocca (2018) who, trying to comprehend YouTube as a vessel for ‘authentic entertainment’, saw ‘The authenticity that attracted us to early YouTube videos and channels came not from their amateurism, but from the aesthetic honestly that naturally accompanies amateurism.’ I believe that the appearance of authenticity has become its own visual aesthetic, identifiable by recordings with phone selfie cameras, and used in video marketing to give the impression that something is unrehearsed, unpolished and produced with the same technical resources and capabilities of its intended audience.


Allocca, K 2018, Videocracy: How YouTube Is Changing the World . . . with Double Rainbows, Singing Foxes, and Other Trends We Can’t Stop Watching, Bloomsbury Publishing, New York, USA.

Ashraf, S 2016, The Silent Movie Era Returns On Social Media, Locowise, 9 December, viewed 21 April 2018, <https://locowise.com/blog/the-silent-movie-era-returns-on-social-media&gt;.

Harrell, L.S n.d., Why Audio is More Important Than Video Image Quality, VTREP, viewed 21 April 2018, <http://vtrep.com/audio-is-more-important-than-video-picture-quality/&gt;.

Dobrian, F, Awan, A, Joseph, D, Ganjam, A, Zhan, J, Sekar, V, Stoica, I & Zhang, H 2011, ‘Understanding the Impact of Video Quality on User Engagement’, in SIGCOMM ’11 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2011 conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 15 – 19 August, pp. 362-373, viewed 20 April 2018 <https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2018478&ftid=1012372&dwn=1&CFID=31083971&CFTOKEN=6f884d4dd7ac3957-6DD46D29-079F-0AB0-320EA49C7CAE8053&gt;.

Jenkins, H 2006, Convergence Culture, NYU Press, New York, USA.

Parker, R 2016, Chewbacca Mask-Wearing Mom Hits 50 Million Facebook Views in 24 Hours, The Hollywood Reporter, 20 May, viewed 21 April 2018, <https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/chewbacca-mask-wearing-mom-hits-896120&gt;.

Writing Digital Stories for an Interactive Audience

Panopticon Digital Story Proposal

One of the difficulties I have faced when writing the script for Panopticon arises from the awareness that the audience has agency in the story world. They can decide which content they want to look at and, because the story won’t automatically continue, they will need to choose to keep engaging with the content. I am worried that telling the story through a non-linear collection of moments and mediums will make Panopticon inaccessible and fail to engage the audience or hold their attention.

The Loop

Tarrant (2003, p. 201 – 202) points to Lev Manovich’s ‘proposition that the loop might be understood as ‘A Narrative Engine’ [where] interactivity becomes less about stopping and going, and more about the continuous re-direction of flow and energy’. The structure of the loop implies that the story needs to return to the same place, a place that can now be explored with new information and any momentum gained must be redirected. Sharing Panopticon through the Verse portal would allow us the opportunity for both linear, chapter-based, exploration and a duplicated landing page that would serve as the location for the loop. Within the boundary of this loop, the story content needs to include directions for the audience that indicate there is more specific information available in other mediums that will deepen the understanding and experience of the story.

Narrative Structure in Three Dimensions

The emergence of the transmedia form has required new structures for developing a narrative. One proposed structure depicts the narrative as three-dimensional, with one dimension being logical and linear as in traditional cinema or books, the second as the choices that audiences can make to influence the first dimension, and the third as the medium through which the story is delivered, which also recognises that there is a meta-level of experiencing the stories – a journey of connecting plot points across these dimensions (Bastiaens & Bouwknegt 2014). We started developing our story concept through a chronological, linear version of events and identified which mediums we would use to tell these parts of the story. Our next step would be to engage our audience through developing the other story dimensions, using tools that lend itself to the transmedia format.

Withholding or Misleading Information

One tool we can use is choosing to withhold some information from the story. Long (2007, p. 53) discusses playing on the audience’s desire for more knowledge, ‘building strategic gaps into a narrative to evoke a delicious sense of ‘uncertainty, mystery, or doubt’. To encourage the audience to make choices about the story, we can also offer alternative descriptions of events or moments depending on the medium it is told through. Bastiaens & Bouwknegt (2014, p. 1284) say that for, the user, this ‘offers the possibility to design his own significance within the text. […] each choice in paradigmatic design has the ability to differ and change according to personal interpretation.’

Hopefully, by implementing these ideas we will be able to create a rich experience that encourages deeper audience engagement with Panopticon.


Bastiaens, O & Bouwknegt, H 2014, ‘Transmedia and Semiotics, A Structural Model for Transmedia Dynamics’, in New Semiotics Between Tradition and Innovation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies (IASS/AIS), New Bulgarian University, Sofia, 16 – 20 September, pp. 1279 – 1289, viewed 12 April 2018, <https://iris.unito.it/bitstream/2318/1645420/1/01_STANO_Con-Fusion%20Cuisines_New%20Semiotics.%20Between%20Tradition%20and%20Innovation.pdf#page=1279>.

Long, G 2007, ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Business, Aesthetics and Production at the Jim Henson Company’, MSc, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, viewed 12 April 2018 <http://www.geoffreylong.com/downloads/geoffreylong_transmediastorytelling.pdf>.

Tarrant, P 2003, ‘New Screen Media: Cinema/Art/Narrative’, Media & Education Magazine, 2003, Issue 136, pp. 201-202, viewed 12 April 2018 <https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/docview/236471115?rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo>.

Connect with Chad O’Brien on LinkedIn




24 Hours in Melbourne

Hootsuite Screenshot 1 Hootsuite Screenshot 2 Hootsuite Screenshot 3 Hootsuite Screenshot 4 Hootsuite Screenshot 5 Hootsuite Screenshot 6 Hootsuite Screenshot 7

The Connection between the Creator and the Audience in Social Media Storytelling

While composing my short story to share on Twitter, incorporating four Instagram images, posted by other creators with the hashtags #cmwp2018 and #24melbourne, I realised that the linear story I was constructing would not be consumed by the majority audiences in that order. Once the final Tweet has been posted, the closest a viewer would get to seeing my original story would be to land on my feed at the last image, decide to scroll to the beginning of the feed and work their way through the chronological posts returning to the story’s end. What seems more likely, however, is that the audience would see one of my Tweets among unrelated posts, either within their own feed or within the context of a hashtag. Considering how users interact with social media, do previously accepted concepts of narrative structure apply to this medium?

In an interview with Mark Cousins for The Story of Film: An Oddessy (2011), Baz Luhrmann identified the first rule of making his Red Curtain Trilogy as ‘we need to know the story up front.’ Luhrmann elaborates explaining, ’In this participatory cinema…you need to know where it’s heading and you need the story to be extremely linear, one thing happens precisely after another like maths so that you save time. You can take the human moment…and we could expand the emotional experience of that beyond the reality in life. …we’re making something that happens in life better than it is in life – bigger than it is in life’ (The Story of Film: An Oddessy 2011). These ideas resonate in context of social media storytelling where the audience enters the story at the most recent content, particularly on Twitter. If the audience chooses to go from the most recent post back to the beginning, they are aware of what is coming at the end. Also, the story itself is comprised of moments that, when shared, go beyond the reality of life. The reality is distorted by the captions, filters and modifications that the content creator uses to influence the audience’s perception of the moment, and by the ability for the audience to choose how much time they spend examining the content. However, in terms of narrative structure, these stories are not complete. We enter them midway through the telling, not at the end, and they often do not follow a linear series of meticulously crafted events.

In social media storytelling, it can be difficult to define a beginning, middle and end, taking us into what Robert McKee identifies as ‘Nonplot’. ‘Story dissolves into portraiture, either a portrait of verisimilitude or one of absurdity. …Although they inform us, touch us, and have their own rhetorical and formal structures, they do not tell story’ (McKee 1999, p. 58). The complete collection of images and captions shared by the content creator offer an insight into their day-to-day existence, inviting audiences to perceive the world as they choose to perceive it. McKee (1999, p. 58)  continues to say that “Although nothing changes within the universe of a Nonplot, we gain a sobering insight and hopefully something changes within us.”

These examples of narrative structure presume a distance between the audience, the creator and the content, however, in the social media medium, users occupy both roles and have the ability to interact and manipulate existing content. One new narrative approach born from this interaction has been collaborative storytelling through hypermedia. Liu et al. (2011, p. 1546) states that ‘participants can develop different story branches in hypermedia while in [a linear appraoch] they share a single story path.’ This approach allows for multiple versions of a story to exist, with multiple creators contributing to the growing narrative world while crediting the proceeding creators. Liu et al. (2011, p. 1546) states ‘social media that facilitate social creativity on the Web must create an environment that attracts potential contributors around the world to participate in creative works.’ Such an environment could be the platform for the development of new narrative structures where single path stories can evolve into an interactive labyrinth without a singular and all-knowing creator.


Liu, C-C, Liu, K-P, Chen, W-H, Lin, C-P & Chen, G-D 2011, ‘Collaborative storytelling experiences in social media: Influence of peer-assistance mechanisms’, Computers & Education, vol. 57, pp. 1544-1556.

McKee, R 1999, Story, Methuen, London, UK.

The Story of Film: An Oddessy (episode 14) 2011, TV mini-series, More4, UK, directed by Mark Cousins.